Analyzing Integrated Renewable Energy and Smart-Grid Systems to Improve Voltage Quality and Harmonic Distortion Losses at Electric-Vehicle Charging Stations

Increasing the use of electric vehicles (EVs) is regarded as a step in the right direction to reduce air pollution and carbon emissions. However, a dramatic increase of EV and charging stations has raised voltage quality and harmonic distortion issues that affect the performance of integrated renewable power sources (wind and solar) and smart-grid electrical transmission networks. This paper models an integrated electric vehicle charging and battery storage system operating in the presence of unpredictable wind and solar power sources. The aim is to enable the design of an electrical control system that develops the correct duty cycle to stabilize and regulate the voltage at the dc/dc power conversion station. Simulations are performed to evaluate energy management by the proposed control system. The proposed system effectively manages the electric power on the grid by drawing power from the batteries at peak times and then charging them in off-peak times, reducing the load on the converter and enabling the reduction of charging time for electric vehicles. A constant voltage is achieved on the grid irrespective of fluctuations in renewable energy generation and in the load.

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