Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and associated risk factors in women from Curaçao

by Desiree J. Hooi, Birgit I. Lissenberg-Witte, Gemma Kenter, Maurits N. C. de Koning, Igor Gomes Bravio, Kim Ardts, Suhaina Kleinmoedig, Edlyn Benita, Herbert M. Pinedo, Johannes Berkhof, Wim G. V. Quint, Chris J. L. M. Meijer

Background

In the Caribbean region, a notable difference in HPV-prevalence and genotypes distribution between the islands is observed. Recently we found in Curaçao a low incidence of HPV16 and 18 in cervical cancer compared to the standard world population. We aimed to determine HPV-prevalence, HPV-genotype distribution and associated risk-factors in women from Curaçao.

Methods

5000 women aged 25–65 years were randomly selected from the national Population Register. HPV was detected by means of GP5+/6+PCR EIA and GP 5+/6+amplimers from HPV-positive samples were genotyped with a reverse hybridisation assay. We also collected personal data and data on risk-factors.

Results

1075 women were enrolled in the study. Overall HPV-prevalence was 19.7%. Most frequent genotypes were HPV16 (2.3%), 35 (2.1%) and 52 (1.8%). Twenty-seven women detected with abnormal cytology (i.e.≥ASC-US) were referred for biopsy. In women with normal cytology (n = 1048), HPV-prevalence was 17.9% and the most common high-risk HPV (hrHPV)-types were HPV35 (2.0%), 18 (1.8%), 16 (1.5%) and 52 (1.5%). The highest HPV-prevalence (32.8%) was found in the age-group: 25–34 (n = 247). HPV positive women started sex at a younger age (p = 0.032).

Conclusions

HPV-prevalence in the overall population is high and HPV16 was the most common genotype followed by 35 and 18. In women with normal cytology HPV35 is the most common genotype followed by HPV18, 52 and 16. The high HPV-prevalence (32.8%) in women of 25–34 years argue for introduction of cervical cancer prevention strategies. HPV-type distribution found in Curaçao should be taken into account when considering the choice for prophylactic vaccination.

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