Proteomic analysis of canine oral tumor tissues using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and in-gel digestion coupled with mass spectrometry (GeLC MS/MS) approaches

by Sirinun Pisamai, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Narumon Phaonakrop, Janthima Jaresitthikunchai, Gunnaporn Suriyaphol

Oral tumors, including highly invasive and metastatic oral melanoma (OM), non-tonsillar oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and benign tumors (BN), are common neoplasms in dogs. Although these tumors behave differently, limited data of their protein expression profiles have been exhibited, particularly at the proteome level. The present study aimed to i.) characterize peptide-mass fingerprints (PMFs) and identify potential protein candidates of OM, OSCC, BN and normal control subjects, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), ii.) identify potential protein candidates associated with the diseases, using in-gel digestion coupled with mass spectrometric analysis (GeLC-MS/MS) and iii.) search for relationships between chemotherapy drugs and disease-perturbed proteins. A distinct cluster of each sample group and unique PMFs with identified protein candidates were revealed. The unique peptide fragment at 2,274 Da of sacsin molecular chaperone (SACS) was observed in early-stage OM whereas the fragment at 1,958 Da of sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 10 (SCN10A) was presented in early- and late-stage OM. The peptide mass at 2,316 Da of Notch1 appeared in early-stage OM and benign oral tumors while the peptide mass at 2,505 Da of glutamate ionotropic receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate type subunit 3A (GRIN3A) was identified in all groups. Markedly expressed proteins from GeLC-MS/MS included Jumonji domain containing 1C (JMJD1C) in benign tumors, inversin (INVS) and rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 28 (ARHGEF28) in OM, BTB domain-containing 16 (BTBD16) in OSCC, and protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 1 (PTPN1), BRCA2, DNA repair associated (BRCA2), WW domain binding protein 2 (WBP2), purinergic receptor P2Y1 and proteasome activator subunit 4 (PSME4) in all cancerous groups. The network connections between these proteins and chemotherapy drugs, cisplatin and doxorubicin, were also demonstrated. In conclusion, this study unveiled the unique PMFs and novel candidate protein markers of canine oral tumors.

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