Relationship between alcohol co-ingestion and outcome in profenofos self-poisoning – A prospective case series

by H. K. Jeevan Dhanarisi, Indika B. Gawarammana, Fahim Mohamed, Michael Eddleston

Introduction

The importance of alcohol co-ingestion for outcome in organophosphorus (OP) insecticide self-poisoning has only been studied for the relatively hydrophilic dimethyl insecticide, dimethoate. We aimed to assess the effect of alcohol in acute poisoning with the lipophilic S-alkyl OP insecticide, profenofos.

Methodology

Demographic and clinical data, including an alcohol history, were prospectively collected from all cases of acute poisoning with agricultural profenofos EC50 presenting to two Sri Lankan hospitals over seven years.

Results

Of 1859 patients with acute OP insecticide self-poisoning, 243 (13.1%) reported ingestion of profenofos (male 182/243, 74.9%). Alcohol co-ingestion was reported by 64/243 (26.3%). All patients reporting alcohol co-ingestion were male (64/64 [100%] vs 118/179 [65.9%] not reporting alcohol ingestion, p<0.001). More patients reporting alcohol co-ingestion died (10/64 [15.6%] vs 10/179 [5.6%]; p = 0.013) and required intubation (13/64 [20.3%] vs 16/179 [8.9%], p = 0.016) compared to those who did not co-ingest alcohol. Using multi-logistic regression, controlling for the estimated dose ingested, age (OR 11.1 [2.5 to 48.9] for age > 35 years vs ≤35 years) and alcohol co-ingestion (OR 3.1 [1.2 to 7.9]) were independently associated with increased risk of death. Increased risk of intubation was independently associated with age (OR 3.2 [1.6 to 6.6] for age > 35 years vs ≤35 years) and alcohol co-ingestion (OR 3.2 [1.6 to 6.4]).

Conclusion

A history of alcohol co-ingestion, as well as older age, is independently associated with worse outcome in patients’ self-poisoned with profenofos.

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