Robustness Evaluation of Extended and Unscented Kalman Filter for Battery State of Charge Estimation

In this paper, the robustness of model-based state observers including extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) for state of charge (SOC) estimation of a lithium-ion battery against unknown initial SOC, current noise, and temperature effects is investigated. To more comprehensively evaluate the performance of EKF and UKF, two battery models including the first-order resistor-capacitor equivalent circuit and combined model are considered. A novel method is proposed to identify the parameters of the equivalent circuit model. The performance of SOC estimation is evaluated by employing measurement data from a commercial lithium-ion battery cell. The experiment results show that UKF generally outperforms EKF in terms of estimation accuracy and convergence rate for each battery model. However, the advantages of UKF over EKF with the combined model is not as significant as with the equivalent circuit model. Both EKF and UKF demonstrate strong robustness against current noise. The updates of model parameters corresponding to operational temperatures generally improve the estimation accuracy of EKF and UKF for both models.

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